The dispersive spectrum of visible light is red, orange, yellow, green, cyan, blue and violet in turn. The corresponding wavelength (frequency) is listed in the following table. It is necessary for students studying optics to remember the correspondence between visible light color and wavelength.

color wave length 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Microscope structure component

The three basic, structural components of a compound microscope are the head, base and arm.

Head/Body houses the optical parts in the upper part of the microscope

Base of the microscope supports the microscope and houses the illuminator

Arm connects to the base and supports the microscope head. It is also used to carry the microscope.

When carrying a compound microscope always take care to lift it by both the arm and base, simultaneously.

 

Microscope accessories and spare parts

There are two optical systems in a compound microscope: Eyepiece Lenses and Objective Lenses:

Eyepiece or Ocular is what you look through at the top of the microscope. Typically, standard eyepieces have a magnifying power of 10x. Optional eyepieces of varying powers are available, typically from 5x-30x.

Eyepiece Tube holds the eyepieces in place above the objective lens. Binocular microscope heads typically incorporate a diopter adjustment ring that allows for the possible inconsistencies of our eyesight in one or both eyes. The monocular (single eye usage) microscope does not need a diopter. Binocular microscopes also swivel (Interpupillary Adjustment) to allow for different distances between the eyes of different individuals.

Objective Lenses are the primary optical lenses on a microscope. They range from 4x-100x and typically, include, three, four or five on lens on most microscopes. Objectives can be forward or rear-facing.

Nosepiece houses the objectives. The objectives are exposed and are mounted on a rotating turret so that different objectives can be conveniently selected. Standard objectives include 4x, 10x, 40x and 100x although different power objectives are available.

Coarse and Fine Focus knobs are used to focus the microscope. Increasingly, they are coaxial knobs – that is to say they are built on the same axis with the fine focus knob on the outside. Coaxial focus knobs are more convenient since the viewer does not have to grope for a different knob.

Stage is where the specimen to be viewed is placed. A mechanical stage is used when working at higher magnifications where delicate movements of the specimen slide are required.

Stage Clips are used when there is no mechanical stage. The viewer is required to move the slide manually to view different sections of the specimen.

Aperture is the hole in the stage through which the base (transmitted) light reaches the stage.

Illuminator is the light source for a microscope, typically located in the base of the microscope. Most light microscopes use low voltage, halogen bulbs with continuous variable lighting control located within the base.

Condenser is used to collect and focus the light from the illuminator on to the specimen. It is located under the stage often in conjunction with an iris diaphragm.

Iris Diaphragm controls the amount of light reaching the specimen. It is located above the condenser and below the stage. Most high quality microscopes include an Abbe condenser with an iris diaphragm. Combined, they control both the focus and quantity of light applied to the specimen.

Condenser Focus Knob moves the condenser up or down to control the lighting focus on the specimen.

microscope accessories and spare parts

ESD (Electro-Static discharge) means “electrostatic discharge”. ESD is a discipline formed in the middle of twentieth Century to study the generation, harm and electrostatic protection of static electricity. Therefore, the international custom used for electrostatic protection equipment collectively referred to as ESD, the Chinese name is electrostatic impedance device.

 

 

ESD20.20 standard

ANSI/ESD S20.20:2007 is an accredited certification project officially launched by the ESD Association (ESD Association) in 2000. The association is made up of manufacturers and operators of electronic components. The main members include IBM, MOTOROLA and other companies. The OEM factories or suppliers of these companies must be approved by ESD S20.20 certification. In order to obtain and maintain the qualification of OEM and supply products. Therefore, ESD20.20 can be considered as a buyer certification standard. For manufacturers of chips, electronic components, power supplies, converters, and display screens, ESD20.20 is similar to a mandatory certification standard to become a well-known brand supplier.

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Eyepiece reticle stage graticule

eyepiece reticle/graticule patterns of Chutong in sizes to fit all microscopes and magnifiers,if you need any special size for your eyepiece,please send us the picture or drawing of eyepiece, then we design the reticle graticule suitable for you.

Eyepiece graticules include scales for measuring linear dimensions, circles for estimating diameters and radii, and a protractor for angles. Scales can be calibrated by comparison with a stage graticule, supplied in convenient microscope slide format.

there is also another type reticle for objective,Stage graticules (also known as stage micrometers), supplied in a convenient microscope slide format, are used to calibrate microscope eyepiece graticules. Eyepiece graticules give a reasonably accurate gauge of viewed object sizes, but, owing to differences in the optical systems of different objectives and eyepieces, calibration is needed for accurate work. This is simply done by placing the stage graticule on the microscope stage and viewing it through the microscope. Comparision of the eyepiece graticule with the stage graticule enables either a correction factor to be calculated or, perhaps, in bespoke systems, the optical spacing to be adjusted to eliminate the magnification error.

 

Stage graticule reticle
cross reticle x y axis of eyepiece

Digital microscope connect to a computer via USB connector,Devices which connect to a computer require software to operate. Basic operation includes viewing the microscope image and recording “snapshots”.The more advanced digital microscope units have stands that hold the microscope and allow it to be racked up and down, similarly to standard optical microscopes. Calibrated movement in all three dimensions may be available

difference between a stereo microscope and a digital microscope is the magnification. With a stereo microscope the magnification is found by multiplying the lens magnification by the eyepiece magnification. Since the digital microscope does not have an eyepiece, the magnification cannot be found using this method. Instead the magnification for a digital microscope is found by how many times larger the sample is reproduced on the monitor. Therefore, the magnification will depend on the size of the monitor. The average digital microscope system, which has a 15″ monitor, would result in an average difference in magnification between an optical microscope and a digital microscope of about 40%. Thus the magnification number of a stereo microscope is usually 40% less than the magnification number of a digital microscope.[citation needed]

Since the digital microscope has the image projected directly on to the CCD camera, it is possible to have higher quality recorded images than with a stereo microscope. With the stereo microscope, the lenses are made for the optics of the eye. Attaching a CCD camera to a stereo microscope will result in an image that has compromises made for the eyepiece. Although the monitor image and recorded image may be of higher quality with the digital microscope, the application of the microscope may dictate which microscope is preferred.[citation needed]

digital microscope combined optic digital camera and computer

digital microscope is a variation of a traditional optical microscope that uses optics and a digital camera to output an image to a monitor, sometimes by means of software running on a computer. A digital microscope often has its own in-built LED light source, and differs from an optical microscope in that there is no provision to observe the sample directly through an eyepiece. Since the image is focussed on the digital circuit the entire system is designed for the monitor image. The optics for the human eye are omitted.

Summery: optic and digital camera combined with computer

Digital microscopes are commonly low price commercial microscopes designed for use with a computer, although advanced systems that do not require a separate computer